Titania pigment particles dispersion in water-based paint films

Saeed Farrokhpay, Gayle E. Morris, Daniel Fornasiero, Peter Self

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

44 Citations (Scopus)


The distribution of titania pigment in dry water-based paint films in the presence of polymeric dispersants containing different functional groups was investigated. The polymeric dispersants chosen were polyacrylic acid and polyacrylamide homo- and copolymers modified with hydroxyl and/or carboxylate groups. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to assess the distribution of the titania pigment particles in the surface and bulk, respectively, of the paint films, which was then compared to the gloss and surface roughness of these films. In the absence of dispersant, the pigment distribution in the paint film was not uniform and relatively large pigment aggregates appeared at the surface, resulting in a rough surface and low gloss value. All dispersants both decreased surface roughness and increased the gloss of the dry paint film, with the dispersant type considerably enhancing the pigment dispersion in the dry paint film, in agreement with results obtained in aqueous pigment suspensions. In the presence of polyacrylamide homopolymer, the paint gloss increased slightly and further increased with the hydroxyl-modified polyacrylamide copolymer. The paint gloss was highest in the presence of polyacrylic acid or carboxylate/hydroxyl-modified polyacrylamide.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)275-283
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Coatings Technology and Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2006
Externally publishedYes


  • Atomic force
  • Dispersants
  • Drying
  • Gloss
  • Physical properties
  • Pigments
  • Polymer functional group
  • Polymeric dispersant
  • Scanning electron microscopy
  • Titania pigment
  • Water-based paint
  • Waterborne


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